1 Constraints of the policy assessment
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- Time horizon: 2006 to 2020 (2030) – Results are derived on a yearly base
- Geographical coverage: all Member States of the European Union (EU-27)
- Technology coverage: limited to RES technologies for power and heat generation as well biofuel production. The (conventional) reference energy system is based on PRIMES modelling – in particular the PRIMES scenario on meeting both EU targets by 2020 (20% GHG reduction, 20% RES by 2020) as of 2008 (“PRIMES target case”) and the PRIMES baseline and efficiency case (as of 2007) was taken as reference.
- RES imports to the EU: limited to biofuels and forestry biomass – besides no alternative possibilities such as physical imports of RES-Electricity are considered for national RES target fulfilment.
- Flexibility options for national RES target fulfilment as defined in the RES directive: limited to “statistical transfer between Member States” and the option of (EU-wide) “joint support schemes” (by means of harmonised RES support). Although from a practical viewpoint important, the third principle intra-European flexibility option of “joint projects” as defined in the RES directive was neglected. The incorporation into the modelling approach was not feasible within the scope of this project due to time and budgetary constraints.